name mode size
test_project 040000
LICENSE 100644 1 kb
README 100644 4 kb
fortran_dependencies.m4 100644 1 kb
fortran_dependencies.mk 100644 4 kb
fortran_dependencies.pl 100755 2 kb
README
fdep ---- fdep is a small set of scripts to teach autoconf/automake (using GNU make) about the additional dependencies in Fortran 90 files due to modules. With this, Fortran files can be listed in any order in Makefile.am and parallel builds work. Usage ----- Put this project as a directory "fdep" in your source code, place the two lines m4_include([fdep/fortran_dependencies.m4]) FDEP_F90_GNU_MAKE_DEPS in your configure.ac, and add a single line @FORTRAN_MODULE_DEPS@ in your Makefile.am. All .F90 files of all programs in bin_PROGRAMS and all libraries in lib_LTLIBRARIES will now be scanned for modules and the resulting dependencies will be honoured. What is the problem with Fortran 90 modules and make dependencies? ------------------------------------------------------------------ In Fortran 90 source files one can define any number of "modules", containing variable and function definitions. The names of the modules defined in a file can be arbitrary. In another source file these modules can be used, informing the Fortran compiler about the definitions in these modules (e.g. to do type-checking). This creates a problem, as the compiler has to know somehow where the module is defined. The usual solution employed by almost every Fortran compiler is to create special "module" files for each module contained in a source file during compilation. Their file name is derived by a compiler-specific recipe of the modules identifier (usually the lower-cased module's identifier plus ".mod", so "foo_module.mod" and "some_other_module.mod"). When the compiler encounters a "use" statement during the compilation of another file, it confers to this file to import the definitions of the module. That means, you cannot compile files using modules defined in yet un-compiled files, one has to tell make about this dependency. (A primitive solution to this problem is listing the file in a pre-sorted order, so that files defining modules are compiled first. However, that way the dependency-graph make knows about is incomplete and parallel builds will fail with a high probability) How does fdep solve this problem technically? --------------------------------------------- As the name of the module files can be an arbitrary (and some compilers might even save the module definitions in some completely different way), fdep tells make about the module dependencies as a relation directly between object files, e.g. when a file 'b.f90' is using any module of file 'a.f90', fdep adds a dependency of b.o: a.o More specifically, the perl-script fortran_dependencies.pl is run by make to create a file .fortran_dependencies/dependencies.mk, which is then included. To do this, first every source file (for every defined program and library) is scanned for lines with "module" or "use" statements. These are saved in two additional files (.use_mods and .def_mods) per source file and contain lists of defined and required modules. The perl script then reads these in and produces the appropriate rules. Drawbacks --------- GNU make is required. The detailed dependency graph due to "module" and "use" statements is only available after pre-processing, when autoconf and even configure is long over. To still get proper dependencies, fdep uses GNU make's feature to include generated sub-Makefiles during a running make invocation. License ------- fdep is released under the MIT License. See the LICENSE file for details. Contributing ------------ Send your patches or pull-request to dev@stellardeath.org