Browse code

Fix merge conflicts

hiro authored on22/08/2018 12:25:54
Showing1 changed files
... ...
@@ -15,13 +15,14 @@
15 15
     <hr>
16 16
 
17 17
     <a id="general"></a>
18
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#general">General questions:</a></h4>
18
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#general">General
19
+    questions:</a></h4>
19 20
     <ul>
20 21
     <li><a href="#WhatIsTor">What is Tor?</a></li>
21
-    <li><a href="#Torisdifferent">How is Tor different from other
22
-proxies?</a></li>
23
-    <li><a href="#CompatibleApplications">What programs can I use with
24
-    Tor?</a></li>
22
+    <li><a href="#Torisdifferent">How is Tor different from other proxies?
23
+    </a></li>
24
+    <li><a href="#CompatibleApplications">What programs can I use with Tor?
25
+    </a></li>
25 26
     <li><a href="#WhyCalledTor">Why is it called Tor?</a></li>
26 27
     <li><a href="#Backdoor">Is there a backdoor in Tor?</a></li>
27 28
     <li><a href="#DistributingTor">Can I distribute Tor?</a></li>
... ...
@@ -30,22 +31,23 @@ proxies?</a></li>
30 31
     <li><a href="#WhySlow">Why is Tor so slow?</a></li>
31 32
     <li><a href="#FileSharing">How can I share files anonymously through Tor?
32 33
     </a></li>
33
-    <li><a href="#Funding">What would The Tor Project do with more
34
-    funding?</a></li>
34
+    <li><a href="#Funding">What would The Tor Project do with more funding?
35
+    </a></li>
35 36
     <li><a href="#IsItWorking">How can I tell if Tor is working, and that my
36 37
     connections really are anonymized?</a></li>
37 38
     <li><a href="#Mobile">Can I use Tor on my phone or mobile device?</a></li>
38
-    <li><a href="#OutboundPorts">Which outbound ports must be open when
39
-    using Tor as a client?</a></li>
39
+    <li><a href="#OutboundPorts">Which outbound ports must be open when using
40
+    Tor as a client?</a></li>
40 41
     <li><a href="#FTP">How do I use my browser for ftp with Tor?</a></li>
41
-    <li><a href="#NoDataScrubbing">Does Tor remove personal information
42
-    from the data my application sends?</a></li>
43
-    <li><a href="#Metrics">How many people use Tor? How many relays or
44
-    exit nodes are there?</a></li>
42
+    <li><a href="#NoDataScrubbing">Does Tor remove personal information from
43
+    the data my application sends?</a></li>
44
+    <li><a href="#Metrics">How many people use Tor? How many relays or exit
45
+    nodes are there?</a></li>
45 46
     </ul>
46 47
 
47 48
     <a id="comp-install"></a>
48
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#comp-install">Compilation and Installation:</a></h4>
49
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#comp-install">
50
+    Compilation and Installation:</a></h4>
49 51
 
50 52
     <ul>
51 53
     <li><a href="#HowUninstallTor">How do I uninstall Tor?</a></li>
... ...
@@ -56,12 +58,13 @@ proxies?</a></li>
56 58
     <li><a href="#VirusFalsePositives">Why does my Tor executable appear to
57 59
     have a virus or spyware?</a></li>
58 60
     <li><a href="#tarballs">How do I open a .tar.gz or .tar.xz file?</a></li>
59
-    <li><a href="#LiveCD">Is there a LiveCD or other bundle that
60
-includes Tor?</a></li>
61
+    <li><a href="#LiveCD">Is there a LiveCD or other bundle that includes Tor?
62
+    </a></li>
61 63
     </ul>
62 64
 
63 65
     <a id="tbb"></a>
64
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#tbb">Tor Browser (general):</a></h4>
66
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#tbb">Tor Browser
67
+    (general):</a></h4>
65 68
     <ul>
66 69
 
67 70
     <li><a href="#TBBFlash">Why can't I view videos on YouTube and other
... ...
@@ -70,13 +73,12 @@ includes Tor?</a></li>
70 73
     </a></li>
71 74
     <li><a href="#SophosOnMac">I'm using the Sophos anti-virus
72 75
     software on my Mac, and Tor starts but I can't browse anywhere.</a></li>
73
-    <li><a href="#XPCOMError">When I start Tor Browser I get an 
74
-error message: "Cannot load XPCOM".</a></li>
76
+    <li><a href="#XPCOMError">When I start Tor Browser I get an  error message:
77
+    "Cannot load XPCOM".</a></li>
75 78
     <li><a href="#TBBOtherExtensions">Can I install other Firefox
76 79
     extensions? Which extensions should I avoid using?</a></li>
77
-    <li><a href="#TBBJavaScriptEnabled">Why is NoScript configured to
78
-allow JavaScript by default in Tor Browser?  Isn't that
79
-unsafe?</a></li>
80
+    <li><a href="#TBBJavaScriptEnabled">Why is NoScript configured to allow
81
+    JavaScript by default in Tor Browser?  Isn't that unsafe?</a></li>
80 82
     <li><a href="#TBBOtherBrowser">I want to use Chrome/IE/Opera/etc
81 83
     with Tor.</a></li>
82 84
     <li><a href="#GoogleCAPTCHA">Google makes me solve a CAPTCHA or tells
... ...
@@ -94,7 +96,8 @@ unsafe?</a></li>
94 96
     </ul>
95 97
 
96 98
     <a id="tbb-3plus"></a>
97
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#tbb-3plus">Tor Browser (3.x and later):</a></h4>
99
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#tbb-3plus">Tor
100
+    Browser (3.x and later):</a></h4>
98 101
 
99 102
     <ul>
100 103
     <li><a href="#DisableJS">How do I disable JavaScript?</a></li>
... ...
@@ -110,11 +113,13 @@ unsafe?</a></li>
110 113
     </ul>
111 114
 
112 115
     <a id="advanced"></a>
113
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#advanced">Advanced Tor usage:</a></h4>
116
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#advanced">Advanced
117
+    Tor usage:</a></h4>
114 118
 
115 119
     <ul>
116 120
     <li><a href="#torrc">I'm supposed to "edit my torrc". What does
117 121
     that mean?</a></li>
122
+    <li><a href="#datadir">Where's tor's data directory?</a></li>
118 123
     <li><a href="#Logs">How do I set up logging, or see Tor's
119 124
     logs?</a></li>
120 125
     <li><a href="#LogLevel">What log level should I use?</a></li>
... ...
@@ -125,13 +130,15 @@ unsafe?</a></li>
125 130
     are used for entry/exit?</a></li>
126 131
     <li><a href="#FirewallPorts">My firewall only allows a few outgoing
127 132
     ports.</a></li>
128
-    <li><a href="#DefaultExitPorts">Is there a list of default exit ports?</a></li>
133
+    <li><a href="#DefaultExitPorts">Is there a list of default exit ports?
134
+    </a></li>
129 135
     <li><a href="#WarningsAboutSOCKSandDNSInformationLeaks">I keep seeing
130 136
     these warnings about SOCKS and DNS information leaks. Should I
131 137
     worry?</a></li>
132 138
     <li><a href="#SocksAndDNS">How do I check if my application that uses
133 139
     SOCKS is leaking DNS requests?</a></li>
134
-    <li><a href="#TorClientOnADifferentComputerThanMyApplications">I want to run my Tor client on a
140
+    <li><a href="#TorClientOnADifferentComputerThanMyApplications">I want to
141
+    run my Tor client on a
135 142
     different computer than my applications.</a></li>
136 143
     <li><a href="#ServerClient">Can I install Tor on a central server, and
137 144
     have my clients connect to it?</a></li>
... ...
@@ -139,22 +146,24 @@ unsafe?</a></li>
139 146
     </ul>
140 147
 
141 148
     <a id="relay"></a>
142
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#relay">Running a Tor relay:</a></h4>
149
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#relay">Running a
150
+    Tor relay:</a></h4>
143 151
     <ul>
144 152
 
145 153
     <li><a href="#HowDoIDecide">How do I decide if I should run a relay?
146 154
     </a></li>
147
-    <li><a href="#MostNeededRelayType">What type of relays are most needed?</a></li>
155
+    <li><a href="#MostNeededRelayType">What type of relays are most needed?
156
+    </a></li>
148 157
     <li><a href="#WhyIsntMyRelayBeingUsedMore">Why isn't my relay being
149 158
     used more?</a></li>
150
-    <li><a href="#IDontHaveAStaticIP">Can I run a Tor relay using a dynamic IP address?</a></li>
159
+    <li><a href="#IDontHaveAStaticIP">Can I run a Tor relay using a dynamic IP
160
+    address?</a></li>
151 161
     <li><a href="#IPv6Relay">Can I use IPv6 on my relay?</a></li>
152 162
     <li><a href="#PortscannedMore">Why do I get portscanned more often
153 163
     when I run a Tor relay?</a></li>
154 164
     <li><a href="#HighCapacityConnection">How can I get Tor to fully
155 165
     make use of my high capacity connection?</a></li>
156
-    <li><a href="#RelayFlexible">How stable does my relay need to
157
-be?</a></li>
166
+    <li><a href="#RelayFlexible">How stable does my relay need to be?</a></li>
158 167
     <li><a href="#BandwidthShaping">What bandwidth shaping options are
159 168
     available to Tor relays?</a></li>
160 169
     <li><a href="#LimitTotalBandwidth">How can I limit the total amount
... ...
@@ -178,15 +187,15 @@ be?</a></li>
178 187
     keep the same key?</a></li>
179 188
     <li><a href="#OfflineED25519">How do offline ed25519 identity keys work?
180 189
     What do I need to know?</a></li>
181
-    <li><a href="#MultipleRelays">I want to run more than one
182
-relay.</a></li>
190
+    <li><a href="#MultipleRelays">I want to run more than one relay.</a></li>
183 191
     <li><a href="#NTService">How do I run my Tor relay as an NT service?
184 192
     </a></li>
185 193
     <li><a href="#VirtualServer">Can I run a Tor relay from my virtual server
186 194
     account?</a></li>
187 195
     <li><a href="#WrongIP">My relay is picking the wrong IP address.</a></li>
188 196
     <li><a href="#BehindANAT">I'm behind a NAT/Firewall</a></li>
189
-    <li><a href="#OutgoingFirewall">How should I configure the outgoing filters on my relay?</a></li>
197
+    <li><a href="#OutgoingFirewall">How should I configure the outgoing filters
198
+    on my relay?</a></li>
190 199
     <li><a href="#RelayMemory">Why is my Tor relay using so much memory?
191 200
     </a></li>
192 201
     <li><a href="#BetterAnonymity">Do I get better anonymity if I run a relay?
... ...
@@ -198,15 +207,18 @@ relay.</a></li>
198 207
     </ul>
199 208
 
200 209
     <a id="onion-services"></a>
201
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#onion-services">Tor onion services:</a></h4>
210
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#onion-services">
211
+    Tor onion services:</a></h4>
202 212
 
203 213
     <ul>
204 214
     <li><a href="#AccessOnionServices">How do I access onion services?</a></li>
205
-    <li><a href="#ProvideAnOnionService">How do I provide an onion service?</a></li>
215
+    <li><a href="#ProvideAnOnionService">How do I provide an onion service?
216
+    </a></li>
206 217
     </ul>
207 218
 
208 219
     <a id="dev"></a>
209
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#dev">Development:</a></h4>
220
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#dev">Development:
221
+    </a></h4>
210 222
 
211 223
     <ul>
212 224
     <li><a href="#VersionNumbers">What do these weird version numbers
... ...
@@ -221,7 +233,8 @@ relay.</a></li>
221 233
     </ul>
222 234
 
223 235
     <a id="anonsec"></a>
224
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#anonsec">Anonymity and Security:</a></h4>
236
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#anonsec">Anonymity
237
+    and Security:</a></h4>
225 238
     <ul>
226 239
     <li><a href="#WhatProtectionsDoesTorProvide">What protections does Tor
227 240
     provide?</a></li>
... ...
@@ -229,8 +242,7 @@ relay.</a></li>
229 242
     communications? Isn't that bad? </a></li>
230 243
     <li><a href="#AmITotallyAnonymous">So I'm totally anonymous if I use
231 244
     Tor?</a></li>
232
-    <li><a href="#KeyManagement">Tell me about all the keys Tor
233
-uses.</a></li>
245
+    <li><a href="#KeyManagement">Tell me about all the keys Tor uses.</a></li>
234 246
     <li><a href="#EntryGuards">What are Entry Guards?</a></li>
235 247
     <li><a href="#ChangePaths">How often does Tor change its paths?</a></li>
236 248
     <li><a href="#CellSize">Tor uses hundreds of bytes for every IRC line. I
... ...
@@ -246,17 +258,18 @@ uses.</a></li>
246 258
     Tor with only 3 hops?</a></li>
247 259
     <li><a href="#AttacksOnOnionRouting">What attacks remain against onion
248 260
     routing?</a></li>
249
-    <li><a href="#LearnMoreAboutAnonymity">Where can I learn more about anonymity?</a></li>
261
+    <li><a href="#LearnMoreAboutAnonymity">Where can I learn more about
262
+    anonymity?</a></li>
250 263
     </ul>
251 264
 
252 265
     <a id="altdesigns"></a>
253
-    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#altdesigns">Alternate designs that we don't do (yet):</a></h4>
266
+    <h4 style="margin-bottom: 18px"><a class="anchor" href="#altdesigns">
267
+    Alternate designs that we don't do (yet):</a></h4>
254 268
 
255 269
     <ul>
256 270
     <li><a href="#EverybodyARelay">You should make every Tor user be a
257 271
     relay.</a></li>
258
-    <li><a href="#TransportIPnotTCP">You should transport all IP
259
-packets,
272
+    <li><a href="#TransportIPnotTCP">You should transport all IP packets,
260 273
     not just TCP packets.</a></li>
261 274
     <li><a href="#HideExits">You should hide the list of Tor relays,
262 275
     so people can't block the exits.</a></li>
... ...
@@ -283,8 +296,8 @@ packets,
283 296
     </ul>
284 297
 
285 298
     <p>For other questions not yet on this version of the FAQ, see the
286
-<a
287
-    href="<wikifaq>">wiki FAQ</a> for now.</p>
299
+    <a href="<wikifaq>">wiki FAQ</a> for now.
300
+    </p>
288 301
 
289 302
     <hr>
290 303
 
... ...
@@ -320,86 +333,65 @@ packets,
320 333
     <hr>
321 334
 
322 335
     <a id="Torisdifferent"></a>
323
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Torisdifferent">How is Tor different
324
-from other proxies?</a></h3>
325
-    <p>
326
-    A typical proxy provider sets up a server somewhere on the Internet
327
-and
328
-allows you to use it to relay your traffic.  This creates a simple, easy
329
-to
330
-maintain architecture.  The users all enter and leave through the same
331
-server.
332
-The provider may charge for use of the proxy, or fund their costs
333
-through
334
-advertisements on the server.  In the simplest configuration, you don't
335
-have to
336
-install anything.  You just have to point your browser at their proxy
337
-server.
338
-Simple proxy providers are fine solutions if you do not want protections
339
-for
340
-your privacy and anonymity online and you trust the provider to not do
341
-bad
342
-things.  Some simple proxy providers use SSL to secure your connection
343
-to them, which protects you against local eavesdroppers, such as those at a
344
-cafe with free wifi Internet.
345
-    </p>
346
-    <p>
347
-    Simple proxy providers also create a single point of failure.  The
348
-provider
349
-knows both who you are and what you browse on the Internet.  They can see
350
-your
351
-traffic as it passes through their server.  In some cases, they can even
352
-see
353
-inside your
354
-encrypted traffic as they relay it to your banking site or to ecommerce
355
-stores.
356
-You have to trust the provider isn't
357
-watching your traffic, injecting their own advertisements into your
358
-traffic
359
-stream, or recording your personal details.
360
-    </p>
361
-    <p>
362
-    Tor passes your traffic through at least 3 different servers before
363
-sending
364
-it on to the destination. Because there's a separate layer of encryption
365
-for
366
-each of the three relays, somebody watching your Internet connection
367
-can't modify, or read, what you are
368
-sending into the Tor network. Your traffic is encrypted between the Tor
369
-client (on your computer) and where it pops out somewhere else in the
370
-world.
371
-</p>
336
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Torisdifferent">How is Tor different from other
337
+    proxies?</a></h3>
338
+    <p>
339
+    A typical proxy provider sets up a server somewhere on the Internet and
340
+    allows you to use it to relay your traffic. This creates a simple, easy to
341
+    maintain architecture. The users all enter and leave through the same server.
342
+    The provider may charge for use of the proxy, or fund their costs through
343
+    advertisements on the server.  In the simplest configuration, you don't have
344
+    to install anything.  You just have to point your browser at their proxy
345
+    server.
346
+    Simple proxy providers are fine solutions if you do not want protections for
347
+    your privacy and anonymity online and you trust the provider to not do bad
348
+    things.  Some simple proxy providers use SSL to secure your connection
349
+    to them, which protects you against local eavesdroppers, such as those at a
350
+    cafe with free wifi Internet.
351
+    </p>
352
+    <p>
353
+    Simple proxy providers also create a single point of failure. The provider
354
+    knows both who you are and what you browse on the Internet. They can see
355
+    your traffic as it passes through their server.  In some cases, they can
356
+    even see inside your encrypted traffic as they relay it to your banking
357
+    site or to ecommerce stores.
358
+    You have to trust the provider isn't watching your traffic, injecting their
359
+    own advertisements into your traffic stream, or recording your personal
360
+    details.
361
+    </p>
362
+    <p>
363
+    Tor passes your traffic through at least 3 different servers before sending
364
+    it on to the destination. Because there's a separate layer of encryption for
365
+    each of the three relays, somebody watching your Internet connection can't
366
+    modify, or read, what you are sending into the Tor network. Your traffic is
367
+    encrypted between the Tor client (on your computer) and where it pops out
368
+    somewhere else in the world.
369
+    </p>
372 370
     <p>
373 371
     <dl>
374
-    <dt>Doesn't the first server see who I am?</dt><dd>Possibly. A bad
375
-first of
376
-three servers can see encrypted Tor traffic coming from your computer.
377
-It
378
-still doesn't know who you are and what you are doing over Tor.  It
379
-merely sees
380
-"This IP address is using Tor".  Tor is not illegal anywhere in the
381
-world, so
382
-using Tor by itself is fine.  You are still protected from this node
383
-figuring
384
-out both who you are and where you are going on the Internet.</dd>
385
-    <dt>Can't the third server see my traffic?</dt><dd>Possibly.  A bad
386
-third
387
-of three servers can see the traffic you sent into Tor.  It won't know
388
-who sent
389
-this traffic.  If you're using encryption (like
390
-HTTPS), it will only know the destination. See <a
391
-href="https://www.eff.org/pages/tor-and-https">this visualization of
392
-Tor and HTTPS</a> to understand how Tor and HTTPS interact.
393
-</dd>
372
+    <dt>Doesn't the first server see who I am?</dt>
373
+    <dd>Possibly. A bad first of three servers can see encrypted Tor traffic
374
+    coming from your computer. It still doesn't know who you are and what you
375
+    are doing over Tor.  It merely sees "This IP address is using Tor".  Tor is
376
+    not illegal anywhere in the world, so using Tor by itself is fine.  You are
377
+    still protected from this node figuring out both who you are and where you
378
+    are going on the Internet.
379
+    </dd>
380
+    <dt>Can't the third server see my traffic?</dt>
381
+    <dd>Possibly.  A bad third of three servers can see the traffic you sent
382
+    into Tor.  It won't know who sent this traffic.  If you're using encryption
383
+    (like HTTPS), it will only know the destination. See
384
+    <a href="https://www.eff.org/pages/tor-and-https">this visualization of Tor
385
+    and HTTPS</a> to understand how Tor and HTTPS interact.
386
+    </dd>
394 387
     </dl>
395 388
     </p>
396 389
 
397 390
     <hr>
398 391
 
399
-
400 392
     <a id="CompatibleApplications"></a>
401
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#CompatibleApplications">What programs
402
-can I use with Tor?</a></h3>
393
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#CompatibleApplications">What programs can I
394
+    use with Tor?</a></h3>
403 395
 
404 396
     <p>
405 397
     Most people use Tor Browser,
... ...
@@ -421,8 +413,7 @@ can I use with Tor?</a></h3>
421 413
     <hr>
422 414
 
423 415
     <a id="WhyCalledTor"></a>
424
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#WhyCalledTor">Why is it called
425
-Tor?</a></h3>
416
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#WhyCalledTor">Why is it called Tor?</a></h3>
426 417
 
427 418
     <p>
428 419
     Because Tor is the onion routing network. When we were starting the
... ...
@@ -439,21 +430,17 @@ Tor?</a></h3>
439 430
     </p>
440 431
 
441 432
     <p>
442
-    Note: even though it originally came from an acronym, Tor is not
443
-spelled
433
+    Note: even though it originally came from an acronym, Tor is not spelled
444 434
     "TOR". Only the first letter is capitalized. In fact, we can usually
445
-    spot people who haven't read any of our website (and have instead
446
-learned
447
-    everything they know about Tor from news articles) by the fact that
448
-they
435
+    spot people who haven't read any of our website (and have instead learned
436
+    everything they know about Tor from news articles) by the fact that they
449 437
     spell it wrong.
450 438
     </p>
451 439
 
452 440
     <hr>
453 441
 
454 442
     <a id="Backdoor"></a>
455
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Backdoor">Is there a backdoor in
456
-Tor?</a></h3>
443
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Backdoor">Is there a backdoor in Tor?</a></h3>
457 444
 
458 445
     <p>
459 446
     There is absolutely no backdoor in Tor.  We know some smart lawyers
... ...
@@ -463,27 +450,25 @@ Tor?</a></h3>
463 450
     </p>
464 451
 
465 452
     <p>
466
-    We will <a
467
-    href="https://media.ccc.de/v/31c3_-_6251_-_en_-_saal_1_-_201412301400_-_state_of_the_onion_-_jacob_-_arma">never</a>
468
-    put a backdoor in Tor.
469
-    We think that putting a backdoor in Tor would be tremendously
470
-    irresponsible to our users, and a bad precedent for security
471
-    software in general. If we ever put a deliberate backdoor in our
472
-    security software, it would ruin our professional reputations.
473
-    Nobody would trust our software ever again &mdash; for excellent
474
-    reason!
453
+    We will
454
+    <a href="https://media.ccc.de/v/31c3_-_6251_-_en_-_saal_1_-_201412301400_-_state_of_the_onion_-_jacob_-_arma">
455
+    never</a> put a backdoor in Tor.
456
+    We think that putting a backdoor in Tor would be tremendously irresponsible
457
+    to our users, and a bad precedent for security software in general. If we
458
+    ever put a deliberate backdoor in our security software, it would ruin our
459
+    professional reputations.
460
+    Nobody would trust our software ever again &mdash; for excellent reason!
475 461
     </p>
476 462
 
477 463
     <p>
478
-    But that said, there are still plenty of subtle attacks
479
-    people might try. Somebody might impersonate us, or break into our
480
-    computers, or something like that. Tor is open source, and you
481
-    should always check the source (or at least the diffs since the last
482
-    release) for suspicious things. If we (or the distributors) don't
483
-    give you source, that's a sure sign something funny might be going
484
-    on. You should also check the <a href="<page
485
-    docs/verifying-signatures>">PGP signatures</a> on the releases, to
486
-    make sure nobody messed with the distribution sites.
464
+    But that said, there are still plenty of subtle attacks people might try.
465
+    Somebody might impersonate us, or break into our computers, or something
466
+    like that. Tor is open source, and you should always check the source (or
467
+    at least the diffs since the last release) for suspicious things. If we (or
468
+    the distributors) don't give you source, that's a sure sign something funny
469
+    might be going on. You should also check the
470
+    <a href="<page docs/verifying-signatures>">PGP signatures</a> on the
471
+    releases, to make sure nobody messed with the distribution sites.
487 472
     </p>
488 473
 
489 474
     <p>
... ...
@@ -495,8 +480,7 @@ Tor?</a></h3>
495 480
     <hr>
496 481
 
497 482
     <a id="DistributingTor"></a>
498
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#DistributingTor">Can I distribute
499
-Tor?</a></h3>
483
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#DistributingTor">Can I distribute Tor?</a></h3>
500 484
 
501 485
     <p>
502 486
     Yes.
... ...
@@ -539,8 +523,7 @@ Tor?</a></h3>
539 523
     <hr>
540 524
 
541 525
     <a id="SupportMail"></a>
542
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#SupportMail">How can I get
543
-support?</a></h3>
526
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#SupportMail">How can I get support?</a></h3>
544 527
 
545 528
     <p>See the <a href="<page about/contact>#support">Support section
546 529
     on the contact page</a>.
... ...
@@ -564,32 +547,24 @@ support?</a></h3>
564 547
     </p>
565 548
 
566 549
     <p>
567
-    Before we answer, though, you should realize that Tor is never going
568
-to
569
-    be blazing fast. Your traffic is bouncing through volunteers'
570
-computers
571
-    in various parts of the world, and some bottlenecks and network
572
-latency
550
+    Before we answer, though, you should realize that Tor is never going to
551
+    be blazing fast. Your traffic is bouncing through volunteers' computers
552
+    in various parts of the world, and some bottlenecks and network latency
573 553
     will always be present. You shouldn't expect to see university-style
574 554
     bandwidth through Tor.
575 555
     </p>
576 556
 
577 557
     <p>
578
-    But that doesn't mean that it can't be improved. The current Tor
579
-network
580
-    is quite small compared to the number of people trying to use it,
581
-and
582
-    many of these users don't understand or care that Tor can't
583
-currently
558
+    But that doesn't mean that it can't be improved. The current Tor network
559
+    is quite small compared to the number of people trying to use it, and
560
+    many of these users don't understand or care that Tor can't currently
584 561
     handle file-sharing traffic load.
585 562
     </p>
586 563
 
587 564
     <p>
588
-    For the much more in-depth answer, see <a
589
-    href="<blog>why-tor-is-slow">Roger's blog
590
-    post on the topic</a>, which includes both a detailed PDF and a
591
-video
592
-    to go with it.
565
+    For the much more in-depth answer, see
566
+    <a href="<blog>why-tor-is-slow">Roger's blog post on the topic</a>,
567
+    which includes both a detailed PDF and a video to go with it.
593 568
     </p>
594 569
 
595 570
     <p>
... ...
@@ -599,10 +574,8 @@ video
599 574
     <ul>
600 575
 
601 576
     <li>
602
-    <a href="<page docs/tor-doc-relay>">Configure your Tor to relay
603
-traffic
604
-    for others</a>. Help make the Tor network large enough that we can
605
-handle
577
+    <a href="<page docs/tor-doc-relay>">Configure your Tor to relay traffic
578
+    for others</a>. Help make the Tor network large enough that we can handle
606 579
     all the users who want privacy and security on the Internet.
607 580
     </li>
608 581
 
... ...
@@ -614,49 +587,37 @@ handle
614 587
     </li>
615 588
 
616 589
     <li>
617
-    There are some bottlenecks in the current Tor network. Help us
618
-design
619
-    experiments to track down and demonstrate where the problems are,
620
-and
590
+    There are some bottlenecks in the current Tor network. Help us design
591
+    experiments to track down and demonstrate where the problems are, and
621 592
     then we can focus better on fixing them.
622 593
     </li>
623 594
 
624 595
     <li>
625 596
     Tor needs some architectural changes too. One important change is to
626
-    start providing <a href="#EverybodyARelay">better service to people
627
-who
628
-    relay traffic</a>. We're working on this, and we'll finish faster if
629
-we
597
+    start providing <a href="#EverybodyARelay">better service to people who
598
+    relay traffic</a>. We're working on this, and we'll finish faster if we
630 599
     get to spend more time on it.
631 600
     </li>
632 601
 
633 602
     <li>
634
-    Help do other things so we can do the hard stuff. Please take a
635
-moment
636
-    to figure out what your skills and interests are, and then <a
637
-href="<page
638
-    getinvolved/volunteer>">look at our volunteer page</a>.
603
+    Help do other things so we can do the hard stuff. Please take a moment
604
+    to figure out what your skills and interests are, and then
605
+    <a href="<page getinvolved/volunteer>">look at our volunteer page</a>.
639 606
     </li>
640 607
 
641 608
     <li>
642
-    Help find sponsors for Tor. Do you work at a company or government
643
-agency
609
+    Help find sponsors for Tor. Do you work at a company or government agency
644 610
     that uses Tor or has a use for Internet privacy, e.g. to browse the
645
-    competition's websites discreetly, or to connect back to the home
646
-servers
647
-    when on the road without revealing affiliations? If your
648
-organization has
649
-    an interest in keeping the Tor network working, please contact them
650
-about
651
-    supporting Tor. Without sponsors, Tor is going to become even
652
-slower.
611
+    competition's websites discreetly, or to connect back to the home servers
612
+    when on the road without revealing affiliations? If your organization has
613
+    an interest in keeping the Tor network working, please contact them about
614
+    supporting Tor. Without sponsors, Tor is going to become even slower.
653 615
     </li>
654 616
 
655 617
     <li>
656 618
     If you can't help out with any of the above, you can still help out
657
-    individually by <a href="<page donate/donate>">donating a bit of
658
-money to the
659
-    cause</a>. It adds up!
619
+    individually by <a href="<page donate/donate>">donating a bit of money to
620
+    the cause</a>. It adds up!
660 621
     </li>
661 622
 
662 623
     </ul>
... ...
@@ -671,71 +632,58 @@ money to the
671 632
     File sharing (peer-to-peer/P2P) is widely unwanted in the Tor network,
672 633
     and exit nodes are configured to block file sharing traffic by default.
673 634
     Tor is not really designed for it, and file sharing through Tor slows
674
-    down everyone's browsing. Also, Bittorrent over Tor <a
675
-    href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/bittorrent-over-tor-isnt-good-idea">
635
+    down everyone's browsing. Also, Bittorrent over Tor
636
+    <a href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/bittorrent-over-tor-isnt-good-idea">
676 637
     is not anonymous</a>!
677 638
     </p>
678 639
 
679 640
     <hr>
680 641
 
681 642
     <a id="Funding"></a>
682
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Funding">What would The Tor Project do
683
-with more funding?</a></h3>
643
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Funding">What would The Tor Project do with
644
+    more funding?</a></h3>
684 645
 
685 646
     <p>
686
-    The Tor network's <a
687
-href="https://metrics.torproject.org/networksize.html">several thousand</a>
688
-    relays push <a
689
-href="https://metrics.torproject.org/bandwidth.html">around 100 Gbps on
690
-average</a>. We have <a
691
-href="https://metrics.torproject.org/userstats-relay-country.html">millions of
692
-    daily users</a>. But the Tor network is not yet self-sustaining.
647
+    The Tor network's
648
+    <a href="https://metrics.torproject.org/networksize.html">several thousand
649
+    </a> relays push <a href="https://metrics.torproject.org/bandwidth.html">
650
+    around 100 Gbps on average</a>. We have
651
+    <a href="https://metrics.torproject.org/userstats-relay-country.html">
652
+    millions of daily users</a>. But the Tor network is not yet self-sustaining.
693 653
     </p>
694 654
 
695 655
     <p>
696
-    There are six main development/maintenance pushes that need
697
-attention:
656
+    There are six main development/maintenance pushes that need attention:
698 657
     </p>
699 658
 
700 659
     <ul>
701 660
 
702 661
     <li>
703
-    Scalability: We need to keep scaling and decentralizing the Tor
704
-    architecture so it can handle thousands of relays and millions of
705
-    users. The upcoming stable release is a major improvement, but
706
-there's
707
-    lots more to be done next in terms of keeping Tor fast and stable.
662
+    Scalability: We need to keep scaling and decentralizing the Tor architecture
663
+    so it can handle thousands of relays and millions of users. The upcoming
664
+    stable release is a major improvement, but there's lots more to be done next
665
+    in terms of keeping Tor fast and stable.
708 666
     </li>
709 667
 
710 668
     <li>
711
-    User support: With this many users, a lot of people are asking
712
-questions
713
-    all the time, offering to help out with things, and so on. We need
714
-good
715
-    clean docs, and we need to spend some effort coordinating
716
-volunteers.
669
+    User support: With this many users, a lot of people are asking questions
670
+    all the time, offering to help out with things, and so on. We need good
671
+    clean docs, and we need to spend some effort coordinating volunteers.
717 672
     </li>
718 673
 
719 674
     <li>
720
-    Relay support: the Tor network is run by volunteers, but they still
721
-need
675
+    Relay support: the Tor network is run by volunteers, but they still need
722 676
     attention with prompt bug fixes, explanations when things go wrong,
723
-    reminders to upgrade, and so on. The network itself is a commons,
724
-and
725
-    somebody needs to spend some energy making sure the relay operators
726
-stay
727
-    happy. We also need to work on stability on some platforms &mdash;
728
-e.g.,
677
+    reminders to upgrade, and so on. The network itself is a commons, and
678
+    somebody needs to spend some energy making sure the relay operators stay
679
+    happy. We also need to work on stability on some platforms &mdash; e.g.,
729 680
     Tor relays have problems on Win XP currently.
730 681
     </li>
731 682
 
732 683
     <li>
733
-    Usability: Beyond documentation, we also need to work on usability
734
-of the
735
-    software itself. This includes installers, clean GUIs, easy
736
-configuration
737
-    to interface with other applications, and generally automating all
738
-of
684
+    Usability: Beyond documentation, we also need to work on usability of the
685
+    software itself. This includes installers, clean GUIs, easy configuration
686
+    to interface with other applications, and generally automating all of
739 687
     the difficult and confusing steps inside Tor.
740 688
     Usability for privacy software has never been easy.
741 689
     </li>
... ...
@@ -743,22 +691,18 @@ of
743 691
     <li>
744 692
     Incentives: We need to work on ways to encourage people to configure
745 693
     their Tors as relays and exit nodes rather than just clients.
746
-    <a href="#EverybodyARelay">We need to make it easy to become a
747
-relay,
694
+    <a href="#EverybodyARelay">We need to make it easy to become a relay,
748 695
     and we need to give people incentives to do it.</a>
749 696
     </li>
750 697
 
751 698
     <li>
752
-    Research: The anonymous communications field is full
753
-    of surprises and gotchas. In our copious free time, we
754
-    also help run top anonymity and privacy conferences like <a
755
-    href="http://petsymposium.org/">PETS</a>. We've identified a set of
756
-    critical <a href="<page getinvolved/volunteer>#Research">Tor
757
-research questions</a>
758
-    that will help us figure out how to make Tor secure against the
759
-variety of
760
-    attacks out there. Of course, there are more research questions
761
-waiting
699
+    Research: The anonymous communications field is full of surprises and
700
+    gotchas. In our copious free time, we also help run top anonymity and
701
+    privacy conferences like <a href="http://petsymposium.org/">PETS</a>.
702
+    We've identified a set of critical
703
+    <a href="<page getinvolved/volunteer>#Research">Tor research questions</a>
704
+    that will help us figure out how to make Tor secure against the variety of
705
+    attacks out there. Of course, there are more research questions waiting
762 706
     behind these.
763 707
     </li>
764 708
 
... ...
@@ -766,11 +710,9 @@ waiting
766 710
 
767 711
     <p>
768 712
     We're continuing to move forward on all of these, but at this rate
769
-    <a href="#WhySlow">the Tor network is growing faster than the
770
-developers
713
+    <a href="#WhySlow">the Tor network is growing faster than the developers
771 714
     can keep up</a>.
772
-    Now would be an excellent time to add a few more developers to the
773
-effort
715
+    Now would be an excellent time to add a few more developers to the effort
774 716
     so we can continue to grow the network.
775 717
     </p>
776 718
 
... ...
@@ -780,22 +722,17 @@ effort
780 722
     </p>
781 723
 
782 724
     <p>
783
-    We are proud to have <a href="<page about/sponsors>">sponsorship and
784
-support</a>
785
-    from the Omidyar Network, the International Broadcasting Bureau,
786
-Bell
787
-    Security Solutions, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, several
788
-government
789
-    agencies and research groups, and hundreds of private contributors.
725
+    We are proud to have
726
+    <a href="<page about/sponsors>">sponsorship and support</a> from the Omidyar
727
+    Network, the International Broadcasting Bureau, Bell Security Solutions,
728
+    the Electronic Frontier Foundation, several government agencies and research
729
+    groups, and hundreds of private contributors.
790 730
     </p>
791 731
 
792 732
     <p>
793
-    However, this support is not enough to keep Tor abreast of changes
794
-in the
795
-    Internet privacy landscape. Please <a href="<page
796
-donate/donate>">donate</a>
797
-    to the project, or <a href="<page about/contact>">contact</a> our
798
-executive
733
+    However, this support is not enough to keep Tor abreast of changes in the
734
+    Internet privacy landscape. Please <a href="<page donate/donate>">donate</a>
735
+    to the project, or <a href="<page about/contact>">contact</a> our executive
799 736
     director for information on making grants or major donations.
800 737
     </p>
801 738
 
... ...
@@ -816,8 +753,8 @@ executive
816 753
     <hr>
817 754
 
818 755
     <a id="OutboundPorts"></a>
819
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#OutboundPorts">Which outbound ports must be open when
820
-    using Tor as a client?</a></h3>
756
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#OutboundPorts">Which outbound ports must be
757
+    open when using Tor as a client?</a></h3>
821 758
     <p>
822 759
     Tor may attempt to connect to any port that is advertised in the
823 760
     directory as an ORPort (for making Tor connections) or a DirPort (for
... ...
@@ -826,11 +763,11 @@ executive
826 763
     ports too.
827 764
     </p>
828 765
     <p>
829
-    When using Tor as a client, you could probably get away with opening only those four
830
-    ports. Since Tor does all its connections in the background, it will retry
831
-    ones that fail, and hopefully you'll never have to know that it failed, as
832
-    long as it finds a working one often enough. However, to get the most
833
-    diversity in your entry nodes &mdash; and thus the most security
766
+    When using Tor as a client, you could probably get away with opening only
767
+    those four ports. Since Tor does all its connections in the background, it
768
+    will retry ones that fail, and hopefully you'll never have to know that it
769
+    failed, as long as it finds a working one often enough. However, to get the
770
+    most diversity in your entry nodes &mdash; and thus the most security
834 771
     &mdash; as well as the most robustness in your connectivity, you'll
835 772
     want to let it connect to all of them.
836 773
     See the FAQ entry on <a href="#FirewallPorts">firewalled ports</a> if
... ...
@@ -846,8 +783,9 @@ executive
846 783
 
847 784
     <p>
848 785
     There are sites you can visit that will tell you if you appear to be
849
-    coming through the Tor network. Try the <a href="https://check.torproject.org">
850
-    Tor Check</a> site and see whether it thinks you are using Tor or not.
786
+    coming through the Tor network. Try the
787
+    <a href="https://check.torproject.org">Tor Check</a> site and see whether
788
+    it thinks you are using Tor or not.
851 789
     </p>
852 790
 
853 791
     <hr>
... ...
@@ -891,95 +829,89 @@ executive
891 829
     <hr>
892 830
 
893 831
     <a id="CompilationAndInstallation"></a>
894
-    <h2><a class="anchor" href="#CompilationAndInstallation">Compilation And Installation:</a></h2>
832
+    <h2><a class="anchor" href="#CompilationAndInstallation">Compilation And
833
+    Installation:</a></h2>
895 834
 
896 835
     <a id="HowUninstallTor"></a>
897
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#HowUninstallTor">How do I uninstall
898
-Tor?</a></h3>
836
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#HowUninstallTor">How do I uninstall Tor?
837
+    </a></h3>
899 838
 
900 839
     <p>
901
-    Tor Browser does not install itself in the classic sense of
902
-applications. You just simply delete the folder or directory named "Tor
903
-Browser" and it is removed from your system.
840
+    Tor Browser does not install itself in the classic sense of applications.
841
+    You just simply delete the folder or directory named "Tor Browser" and it
842
+    is removed from your system.
904 843
     </p>
905 844
 
906 845
     <p>
907
-    If this is not related to Tor Browser, uninstallation depends
908
-entirely on how you installed it and which operating system you
909
-    have. If you installed a package, then hopefully your package has a
910
-way to
911
-    uninstall itself. The Windows packages include uninstallers.
846
+    If this is not related to Tor Browser, uninstallation depends entirely on
847
+    how you installed it and which operating system you have. If you installed
848
+    a package, then hopefully your package has a way to uninstall itself.
849
+    The Windows packages include uninstallers.
912 850
     </p>
913 851
 
914 852
     <p>
915
-    For Mac OS X, follow the <a
916
-    href="<page docs/tor-doc-osx>#uninstall">uninstall directions</a>.
853
+    For Mac OS X, follow the
854
+    <a href="<page docs/tor-doc-osx>#uninstall">uninstall directions</a>.
917 855
     </p>
918 856
 
919 857
     <p>
920
-    If you installed by source, I'm afraid there is no easy uninstall
921
-method. But
922
-    on the bright side, by default it only installs into /usr/local/ and
923
-it should
924
-    be pretty easy to notice things there.
858
+    If you installed by source, I'm afraid there is no easy uninstall method.
859
+    But on the bright side, by default it only installs into /usr/local/ and it
860
+    should be pretty easy to notice things there.
925 861
     </p>
926 862
 
927 863
     <hr>
928 864
 
929 865
     <a id="PGPSigs"></a>
930
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#PGPSigs">What are these "sig" files on
931
-the download page?</a></h3>
932
-
933
-    <p>
934
-    These are PGP signatures, so you can verify that the file you've
935
-downloaded is
936
-    exactly the one that we intended you to get.
937
-    </p>
938
-
939
-    <p>
940
-    Please read the <a
941
-    href="<page docs/verifying-signatures>">verifying signatures</a>
942
-page for details.
943
-    </p>
944
-
945
-<hr>
946
-
947
-<a id="GetTor"></a>
948
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#GetTor">Your website is blocked in my
949
-country. How do I download Tor?</a></h3>
950
-
951
-<p>
952
-Some government or corporate firewalls censor connections to Tor's
953
-website. In those cases, you have three options. First, get it from
954
-a friend &mdash; <a href="<page projects/torbrowser>">Tor Browser</a>
955
-fits nicely on a USB key. Second, find the <a
956
-href="https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=tor+mirrors">google
957
-cache</a>
958
-for the <a href="<page getinvolved/mirrors>">Tor mirrors</a> page
959
-and see if any of those copies of our website work for you. Third,
960
-you can download Tor Browser via email: log in to your email account
961
-and send an email to '<tt>gettor@torproject.org</tt>' with one of the
962
-following words in the body of the message: <tt>windows</tt>,
963
-<tt>osx</tt> or <tt>linux</tt> (case insensitive).
964
-You will receive a reply with links from popular cloud services to
965
-download Tor Browser for Windows, Mac OS X or Linux, depending on the
966
-option you chose. Currently, the only cloud service supported is
967
-Dropbox. If you send a blank message or anything different from the
968
-options mentioned, you will receive a help message with detailed
969
-instructions to ask for Tor Browser via email. Please note that you
970
-can use this service from any email address: gmail, yahoo, hotmail,
971
-riseup, etc. The only restriction is that you can do a maximum of
972
-three requests in a row, after that you'll have to wait 20 minutes to
973
-use it again. See the <a href="../projects/gettor.html">GetTor</a>
974
-section for more information.
975
-</p>
976
-
977
-<p>
978
-Be sure to <a href="<page docs/verifying-signatures>">verify the
979
-signature</a>
980
-of any package you download, especially when you get it from somewhere
981
-other than our official HTTPS website.
982
-</p>
866
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#PGPSigs">What are these "sig" files on the
867
+    download page?</a></h3>
868
+
869
+    <p>
870
+    These are PGP signatures, so you can verify that the file you've downloaded
871
+    is exactly the one that we intended you to get.
872
+    </p>
873
+
874
+    <p>
875
+    Please read the
876
+    <a href="<page docs/verifying-signatures>">verifying signatures</a>
877
+    page for details.
878
+    </p>
879
+
880
+    <hr>
881
+
882
+    <a id="GetTor"></a>
883
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#GetTor">Your website is blocked in my country.
884
+    How do I download Tor?</a></h3>
885
+
886
+    <p>
887
+    Some government or corporate firewalls censor connections to Tor's website.
888
+    In those cases, you have three options. First, get it from a friend &mdash;
889
+    <a href="<page projects/torbrowser>">Tor Browser</a> fits nicely on a USB
890
+    key. Second, find the
891
+    <a href="https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=tor+mirrors">google cache</a>
892
+    for the <a href="<page getinvolved/mirrors>">Tor mirrors</a> page and see if
893
+    any of those copies of our website work for you. Third, you can download Tor
894
+    Browser via email: log in to your email account and send an email to
895
+    '<tt>gettor@torproject.org</tt>' with one of the following words in the
896
+    body of the message: <tt>windows</tt>, <tt>osx</tt> or <tt>linux</tt>
897
+    (case insensitive).
898
+    You will receive a reply with links from popular cloud services to download
899
+    Tor Browser for Windows, Mac OS X or Linux, depending on the option you
900
+    chose. Currently, the only cloud service supported is Dropbox. If you send
901
+    a blank message or anything different from the options mentioned, you will
902
+    receive a help message with detailed instructions to ask for Tor Browser
903
+    via email. Please note that you can use this service from any email address:
904
+    gmail, yahoo, hotmail, riseup, etc. The only restriction is that you can do
905
+    a maximum of three requests in a row, after that you'll have to wait 20
906
+    minutes to use it again. See the
907
+    <a href="../projects/gettor.html">GetTor</a> section for more information.
908
+    </p>
909
+
910
+    <p>
911
+    Be sure to <a href="<page docs/verifying-signatures>">verify the
912
+    signature</a> of any package you download, especially when you get it from
913
+    somewhere other than our official HTTPS website.
914
+    </p>
983 915
 
984 916
     <hr>
985 917
 
... ...
@@ -994,6 +926,7 @@ other than our official HTTPS website.
994 926
     that you have a program that seems to be triggering false positives. Or
995 927
     pick a better vendor.
996 928
     </p>
929
+
997 930
     <p>In the meantime, we encourage you to not just take our word for it.
998 931
     Our job is to provide the source; if you're concerned, please do
999 932
     recompile it yourself.</p>
... ...
@@ -1008,7 +941,11 @@ other than our official HTTPS website.
1008 941
     Tar is a common archive utility for Unix and Linux systems. If your
1009 942
     system has a mouse, you can usually open them by double clicking.
1010 943
     Otherwise open a command prompt and execute</p>
1011
-    <pre>tar xzf &lt;FILENAME&gt;.tar.gz</pre> or <pre>tar xJf &lt;FILENAME&gt;.tar.xz</pre>
944
+
945
+    <pre>tar xzf &lt;FILENAME&gt;.tar.gz</pre>
946
+    or
947
+    <pre>tar xJf &lt;FILENAME&gt;.tar.xz</pre>
948
+
1012 949
     <p>
1013 950
     as documented on tar's man page.
1014 951
     </p>
... ...
@@ -1016,373 +953,380 @@ other than our official HTTPS website.
1016 953
     <hr>
1017 954
 
1018 955
     <a id="LiveCD"></a>
1019
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#LiveCD">Is there a LiveCD or other
1020
-bundle that includes Tor?</a></h3>
956
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#LiveCD">Is there a LiveCD or other bundle that
957
+    includes Tor?</a></h3>
1021 958
 
1022 959
     <p>
1023 960
     Yes.  Use <a href="https://tails.boum.org/">The Amnesic Incognito
1024 961
     Live System</a> or <a href="<page projects/torbrowser>">Tor Browser</a>.
1025 962
     </p>
1026 963
 
1027
-<hr>
1028
-
1029
-<a id="TBBGeneral"></a>
1030
-<h2><a class="anchor" href="#TBBGeneral">Tor Browser (general):</a></h2>
1031
-
1032
-<a id="TBBFlash"></a>
1033
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBFlash">Why can't I view videos on
1034
-some Flash-based sites?</a></h3>
1035
-
1036
-<p>
1037
-Some sites require third party browser plugins such as Flash.
1038
-Plugins operate independently from Firefox and can perform
1039
-activity on your computer that ruins your anonymity. This includes
1040
-but is not limited to: completely disregarding
1041
-proxy settings, querying your <a
1042
-href="http://forums.sun.com/thread.jspa?threadID=5162138&amp;messageID=9618376">
1043
-local IP address</a>, and <a
1044
-href="http://epic.org/privacy/cookies/flash.html">storing their own
1045
-cookies</a>. It is possible to use a LiveCD solution such as
1046
-or <a href="https://tails.boum.org/">The Amnesic Incognito Live System</a>
1047
-that creates a secure, transparent proxy to protect you from proxy bypass,
1048
-however issues with local IP address discovery and Flash cookies still remain.
1049
-</p>
1050
-
1051
-<hr>
1052
-
1053
-<a id="Ubuntu"></a>
1054
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#Ubuntu">
1055
-I'm using Ubuntu and I can't start Tor Browser.</a></h3>
1056
-<p>
1057
-You'll need to tell Ubuntu that you want the ability to execute shell scripts
1058
-from the graphical interface. Open "Files" (Unity's explorer), open
1059
-Preferences-> Behavior Tab -> Set "Run executable text files when they are
1060
-opened" to "Ask every time", then OK.
1061
-</p>
1062
-<p>You can also start Tor Browser from the command line by running </p>
1063
-<pre>./start-tor-browser</pre>
1064
-<p>
1065
-from inside the Tor Browser directory.
1066
-</p>
1067
-
1068
-<hr>
1069
-
1070
-<a id="SophosOnMac"></a>
1071
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#SophosOnMac">I'm using the Sophos anti-virus
964
+    <hr>
965
+
966
+    <a id="TBBGeneral"></a>
967
+    <h2><a class="anchor" href="#TBBGeneral">Tor Browser (general):</a></h2>
968
+
969
+    <a id="TBBFlash"></a>
970
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBFlash">Why can't I view videos on some
971
+    Flash-based sites?</a></h3>
972
+
973
+    <p>
974
+    Some sites require third party browser plugins such as Flash.
975
+    Plugins operate independently from Firefox and can perform activity on your
976
+    computer that ruins your anonymity. This includes but is not limited to:
977
+    completely disregarding proxy settings, querying your
978
+    <a href="http://forums.sun.com/thread.jspa?threadID=5162138&amp;messageID=9618376">
979
+    local IP address</a>, and
980
+    <a href="http://epic.org/privacy/cookies/flash.html">storing their
981
+    owncookies</a>. It is possible to use a LiveCD solution such as or
982
+    <a href="https://tails.boum.org/">The Amnesic Incognito Live System</a>
983
+    that creates a secure, transparent proxy to protect you from proxy bypass,
984
+    however issues with local IP address discovery and Flash cookies still remain.
985
+    </p>
986
+
987
+    <hr>
988
+
989
+    <a id="Ubuntu"></a>
990
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Ubuntu">I'm using Ubuntu and I can't start Tor
991
+    Browser.</a></h3>
992
+    <p>
993
+    You'll need to tell Ubuntu that you want the ability to execute shell
994
+    scripts from the graphical interface. Open "Files" (Unity's explorer), open
995
+    Preferences-> Behavior Tab -> Set "Run executable text files when they are
996
+    opened" to "Ask every time", then OK.
997
+    </p>
998
+
999
+    <p>You can also start Tor Browser from the command line by running </p>
1000
+
1001
+    <pre>./start-tor-browser</pre>
1002
+
1003
+    <p>
1004
+    from inside the Tor Browser directory.
1005
+    </p>
1006
+
1007
+    <hr>
1008
+
1009
+    <a id="SophosOnMac"></a>
1010
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#SophosOnMac">I'm using the Sophos anti-virus
1072 1011
     software on my Mac, and Tor starts but I can't browse anywhere.</a></h3>
1073
-<p>
1074
-You'll need to modify Sophos anti-virus so that Tor can connect to the
1075
-internet. Go to Preferences -> Web Protection -> General, and turn off
1076
-the protections for "Malicious websites" and "Malicious downloads".
1077
-</p>
1078
-<p>
1079
-We encourage affected Sophos users to contact Sophos support about
1080
-this issue.
1081
-</p>
1082
-
1083
-<hr>
1084
-
1085
-<a id="XPCOMError"></a>
1086
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#XPCOMError">When I start Tor Browser I get an 
1087
-error message: "Cannot load XPCOM".</a></h3>
1088
-
1089
-<p>
1090
-This <a 
1091
-href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/10789">problem</a> is 
1092
-specifically caused by the Webroot SecureAnywhere Antivirus software. 
1093
-From the Webroot control panel, go to Identity Protection &rarr; Application 
1094
-Protection, and set all the files in your Tor Browser folder to 'Allow'. 
1095
-We encourage affected Webroot users to contact Webroot support about this 
1096
-issue.
1097
-</p>
1098
-
1099
-<hr>
1100
-
1101
-<a id="TBBOtherExtensions"></a>
1102
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBOtherExtensions">Can I install other
1103
-Firefox extensions?</a></h3>
1104
-
1105
-<p>
1106
-Tor Browser is free software, so there is nothing preventing you from
1107
-modifying it any way you like. However, we do not recommend installing any
1108
-additional Firefox add-ons with Tor Browser. Add-ons can break
1109
-your anonymity in a number of ways, including browser fingerprinting and
1110
-bypassing proxy settings.
1111
-</p>
1112
-<p>
1113
-Some people have suggested we include ad-blocking software or
1114
-anti-tracking software with Tor Browser. Right now, we do not
1115
-think that's such a good idea. Tor Browser aims to provide
1116
-sufficient privacy that additional add-ons to stop ads and trackers are
1117
-not necessary. Using add-ons like these may cause some sites to break, which
1118
-<a href="https://www.torproject.org/projects/torbrowser/design/#philosophy">
1119
-we don't want to do</a>. Additionally, maintaining a list of "bad" sites that
1120
-should be black-listed provides another opportunity to uniquely fingerprint
1121
-users.
1122
-</p>
1123
-
1124
-<hr>
1125
-
1126
-<a id="TBBJavaScriptEnabled"></a>
1127
-<a id="TBBCanIBlockJS"></a>
1128
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBJavaScriptEnabled">Why is NoScript
1129
-configured to allow JavaScript by default in Tor Browser?
1130
-Isn't that unsafe?</a></h3>
1131
-
1132
-<p>
1133
-We configure NoScript to allow JavaScript by default in Tor
1134
-Browser because many websites will not work with JavaScript
1135
-disabled.  Most users would give up on Tor entirely if a website
1136
-they want to use requires JavaScript, because they would not know
1137
-how to allow a website to use JavaScript (or that enabling
1138
-JavaScript might make a website work).
1139
-</p>
1140
-
1141
-<p>
1142
-There's a tradeoff here. On the one hand, we should leave
1143
-JavaScript enabled by default so websites work the way
1144
-users expect. On the other hand, we should disable JavaScript
1145
-by default to better protect against browser vulnerabilities (<a
1146
-href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/tor-security-advisory-old-tor-browser-bundles-vulnerable">
1147
-not just a theoretical concern!</a>). But there's a third issue: websites
1148
-can easily determine whether you have allowed JavaScript for them,
1149
-and if you disable JavaScript by default but then allow a few websites
1150
-to run scripts (the way most people use NoScript), then your choice of
1151
-whitelisted websites acts as a sort of cookie that makes you recognizable
1152
-(and distinguishable), thus harming your anonymity.
1153
-</p>
1154
-
1155
-<p>
1156
-Ultimately, we want the default Tor bundles to use
1157
-a combination of firewalls (like the iptables rules
1158
-in <a href="https://tails.boum.org/">Tails</a>) and <a
1159
-href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/7680">sandboxes</a>
1160
-to make JavaScript not so scary. In
1161
-the shorter term, TBB 3.0 will hopefully <a
1162
-href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/9387">allow users
1163
-to choose their JavaScript settings more easily</a> &mdash; but the
1164
-partitioning concern will remain.
1165
-</p>
1166
-
1167
-<p>
1168
-Until we get there, feel free to leave JavaScript on or off depending
1169
-on your security, anonymity, and usability priorities.
1170
-</p>
1171
-
1172
-<hr>
1173
-
1174
-<a id="TBBOtherBrowser"></a>
1175
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBOtherBrowser">I want to use
1176
-Chrome/IE/Opera/etc with Tor.</a></h3>
1177
-
1178
-<p>
1179
-In short, using any browser besides Tor Browser with Tor is a
1180
-really bad idea.
1181
-</p>
1182
-
1183
-<p>
1184
-Our efforts to work with the Chrome team to <a
1185
-href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/google-chrome-incognito-mode-tor-and-fingerprinting">add
1186
-missing APIs</a> were unsuccessful, unfortunately. Currently, it is impossible
1187
-to use other browsers and get the same level of protections as when using
1188
-Tor Browser.
1189
-</p>
1190
-
1191
-<hr>
1192
-
1193
-<a id="GoogleCAPTCHA"></a>
1194
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#GoogleCAPTCHA">Google makes me solve a
1195
-CAPTCHA or tells me I have spyware installed.</a></h3>
1196
-
1197
-<p>
1198
-This is a known and intermittent problem; it does not mean that Google
1199
-considers Tor to be spyware.
1200
-</p>
1201
-
1202
-<p>
1203
-When you use Tor, you are sending queries through exit relays that are
1204
-also shared by thousands of other users. Tor users typically see this
1205
-message when many Tor users are querying Google in a short period of time.
1206
-Google interprets the high volume of traffic from a single IP address
1207
-(the exit relay you happened to pick) as somebody trying to "crawl" their
1208
-website, so it slows down traffic from that IP address for a short time.
1209
-</p>
1210
-<p>
1211
-An alternate explanation is that Google tries to detect certain
1212
-kinds of spyware or viruses that send distinctive queries to Google
1213
-Search. It notes the IP addresses from which those queries are received
1214
-(not realizing that they are Tor exit relays), and tries to warn any
1215
-connections coming from those IP addresses that recent queries indicate
1216
-an infection.
1217
-</p>
1218
-
1219
-<p>
1220
-To our knowledge, Google is not doing anything intentionally specifically
1221
-to deter or block Tor use. The error message about an infected machine
1222
-should clear up again after a short time.
1223
-</p>
1224
-
1225
-<hr />
1226
-
1227
-<a id="ForeignLanguages"></a>
1228
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#ForeignLanguages">
1229
-Why does Google show up in foreign languages?</a></h3>
1230
-
1231
-<p>
1232
- Google uses "geolocation" to determine where in the world you are, so it
1233
- can give you a personalized experience. This includes using the language
1234
- it thinks you prefer, and it also includes giving you different results
1235
- on your queries.
1236
-</p>
1237
-<p>
1238
-If you really want to see Google in English you can click the link that
1239
-provides that. But we consider this a feature with Tor, not a bug --- the
1240
-Internet is not flat, and it in fact does look different depending on
1241
-where you are. This feature reminds people of this fact.
1242
-</p>
1243
-<p>
1244
-Note that Google search URLs take name/value pairs as arguments and one
1245
-of those names is "hl". If you set "hl" to "en" then Google will return
1246
-search results in English regardless of what Google server you have been
1247
-sent to. On a query this looks like:
1248
-</p>
1249
-<pre>https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=online%20anonymity&hl=en</pre>
1250
-<p>
1251
-Another method is to simply use your country code for accessing Google.
1252
-This can be google.be, google.de, google.us and so on.
1253
-</p>
1254
-<hr />
1255
-<a id="GmailWarning"></a>
1256
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#GmailWarning">Gmail warns me that my
1257
-account may have been compromised.</a></h3>
1258
-
1259
-<p>
1260
-Sometimes, after you've used Gmail over Tor, Google presents a
1261
-pop-up notification that your account may have been compromised.
1262
-The notification window lists a series of IP addresses and locations
1263
-throughout the world recently used to access your account.
1264
-</p>
1265
-
1266
-<p>
1267
-In general this is a false alarm: Google saw a bunch of logins from
1268
-different places, as a result of running the service via Tor, and
1269
-decided
1270
-it was a good idea to confirm the account was being accessed by it's
1271
-rightful owner.
1272
-</p>
1273
-
1274
-<p>
1275
-Even though this may be a biproduct of using the service via tor,
1276
-that doesn't mean you can entirely ignore the warning. It is
1277
-<i>probably</i> a false positive, but it might not be since it is
1278
-possible for someone to hijack your Google cookie.
1279
-</p>
1280
-
1281
-<p>
1282
-Cookie hijacking is possible by either physical access to your computer
1283
-or by watching your network traffic.  In theory only physical access
1284
-should compromise your system because Gmail and similar services
1285
-should only send the cookie over an SSL link. In practice, alas, it's <a
1286
-href="http://fscked.org/blog/fully-automated-active-https-cookie-
1287
-hijacking">
1288
-way more complex than that</a>.
1289
-</p>
1290
-
1291
-<p>
1292
-And if somebody <i>did</i> steal your google cookie, they might end
1293
-up logging in from unusual places (though of course they also might
1294
-not). So the summary is that since you're using Tor, this security
1295
-measure that Google uses isn't so useful for you, because it's full of
1296
-false positives. You'll have to use other approaches, like seeing if
1297
-anything looks weird on the account, or looking at the timestamps for
1298
-recent logins and wondering if you actually logged in at those times.
1299
-</p>
1300
-
1301
-<hr>
1302
-
1303
-<a id="NeedToUseAProxy"></a>
1304
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#NeedToUseAProxy">My internet connection
1305
-requires an HTTP or SOCKS Proxy</a></h3>
1306
-
1307
-<p>
1308
-You can set Proxy IP address, port, and authentication information in
1309
-Tor Browser's Network Settings. If you're using Tor another way, check
1310
-out the HTTPProxy and HTTPSProxy config options in the <a
1311
-href="<page docs/tor-manual>">man page</a>,
1312
-and modify your torrc file accordingly. You will need an HTTP proxy for
1313
-doing GET requests to fetch the Tor directory, and you will need an
1314
-HTTPS proxy for doing CONNECT requests to get to Tor relays. (It's fine
1315
-if they're the same proxy.) Tor also recognizes the torrc options
1316
-Socks4Proxy and Socks5Proxy.
1317
-</p>
1318
-<p>
1319
-Also read up on the HTTPProxyAuthenticator and HTTPSProxyAuthenticator
1320
-options if your proxy requires auth. We only support basic auth currently,
1321
-but if you need NTLM authentication, you may find <a
1322
-href="http://archives.seul.org/or/talk/Jun-2005/msg00223.html">this post
1323
-in the archives</a> useful.
1324
-</p>
1325
-<p>
1326
-If your proxies only allow you to connect to certain ports, look at the
1327
-entry on <a href="#FirewallPorts">Firewalled clients</a> for how
1328
-to restrict what ports your Tor will try to access.
1329
-</p>
1330
-
1331
-<hr>
1332
-
1333
-
1334
-<a id="TBBSocksPort"></a>
1335
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBSocksPort">
1336
-I want to run another application through Tor.</a></h3>
1337
-
1338
-<p>
1339
-If you are trying to use some external application with Tor, step zero
1340
-should be to <a href="<page download/download>#warning">reread the set
1341
-of warnings</a> for ways you can screw up. Step one should be to try
1342
-to use a SOCKS proxy rather than an HTTP proxy.
1343
-Typically Tor listens for SOCKS connections on port 9050. Tor Browser listens
1344
-on port 9150.
1345
-</p>
1346
-
1347
-<p>
1348
-If your application doesn't support SOCKS proxies, feel free to install <a
1349
-href="http://www.privoxy.org/">privoxy</a>.
1350
-However, please realize that this approach is not recommended for novice
1351
-users. Privoxy has an <a
1352
-href="http://www.privoxy.org/faq/misc.html#TOR">example
1353
-configuration</a> of Tor and Privoxy.
1354
-</p>
1355
-
1356
-<p>
1357
-If you're unable to use the application's native proxy settings, all hope is
1358
-not lost. See <a href="#CantSetProxy">below</a>.
1359
-</p>
1360
-
1361
-<hr>
1362
-
1363
-<a id="CantSetProxy"></a>
1364
-<h3><a class="anchor" href="#CantSetProxy">What should I do if I can't
1365
-set a proxy with my application?</a></h3>
1366
-
1367
-<p>
1368
-On Unix, we recommend you give <a
1369
-href="https://github.com/dgoulet/torsocks/">torsocks</a> a try.
1370
-Alternative proxifying tools like <a
1371
-href="http://www.dest-unreach.org/socat/">socat</a> and <a
1372
-href="http://proxychains.sourceforge.net/">proxychains</a> are also
1373
-available.</p>
1374
-<p>
1375
-The Windows way to force applications through Tor is less clear. <a
1376
-href="http://freecap.ru/eng/">Some</a> <a
1377
-href="http://www.freehaven.net/~aphex/torcap/">tools</a> have been <a
1378
-href="http://www.crowdstrike.com/community-tools/index.html#tool-79">proposed
1379
-</a>, but we'd also like to see further testing done here.
1380
-</p>
1381
-
1382
-<hr>
1383
-
1384
-<a id="TBB3.x"></a>
1385
-<h2><a class="anchor" href="#TBB3.x">Tor Browser (3.x and later):</a></h2>
1012
+
1013
+    <p>
1014
+    You'll need to modify Sophos anti-virus so that Tor can connect to the
1015
+    internet. Go to Preferences -> Web Protection -> General, and turn off
1016
+    the protections for "Malicious websites" and "Malicious downloads".
1017
+    </p>
1018
+
1019
+    <p>
1020
+    We encourage affected Sophos users to contact Sophos support about
1021
+    this issue.
1022
+    </p>
1023
+
1024
+    <hr>
1025
+
1026
+    <a id="XPCOMError"></a>
1027
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#XPCOMError">When I start Tor Browser I get an
1028
+    error message: "Cannot load XPCOM".</a></h3>
1029
+
1030
+    <p>
1031
+    This <a href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/10789">
1032
+    problem</a> is specifically caused by the Webroot SecureAnywhere Antivirus
1033
+    software.
1034
+    From the Webroot control panel, go to Identity Protection &rarr; Application
1035
+    Protection, and set all the files in your Tor Browser folder to 'Allow'.
1036
+    We encourage affected Webroot users to contact Webroot support about this
1037
+    issue.
1038
+    </p>
1039
+
1040
+    <hr>
1041
+
1042
+    <a id="TBBOtherExtensions"></a>
1043
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBOtherExtensions">Can I install other
1044
+    Firefox extensions?</a></h3>
1045
+
1046
+    <p>
1047
+    Tor Browser is free software, so there is nothing preventing you from
1048
+    modifying it any way you like. However, we do not recommend installing any
1049
+    additional Firefox add-ons with Tor Browser. Add-ons can break
1050
+    your anonymity in a number of ways, including browser fingerprinting and
1051
+    bypassing proxy settings.
1052
+    </p>
1053
+
1054
+    <p>
1055
+    Some people have suggested we include ad-blocking software or anti-tracking
1056
+    software with Tor Browser. Right now, we do not think that's such a good
1057
+    idea. Tor Browser aims to provide sufficient privacy that additional add-ons
1058
+    to stop ads and trackers are not necessary. Using add-ons like these may
1059
+    cause some sites to break, which
1060
+    <a href="/projects/torbrowser/design/#philosophy">
1061
+    we don't want to do</a>. Additionally, maintaining a list of "bad" sites
1062
+    that should be black-listed provides another opportunity to uniquely
1063
+    fingerprint users.
1064
+    </p>
1065
+
1066
+    <hr>
1067
+
1068
+    <a id="TBBJavaScriptEnabled"></a>
1069
+    <a id="TBBCanIBlockJS"></a>
1070
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBJavaScriptEnabled">Why is NoScript
1071
+    configured to allow JavaScript by default in Tor Browser?
1072
+    Isn't that unsafe?</a></h3>
1073
+
1074
+    <p>
1075
+    We configure NoScript to allow JavaScript by default in Tor Browser because
1076
+    many websites will not work with JavaScript disabled. Most users would give
1077
+    up on Tor entirely if a website they want to use requires JavaScript,
1078
+    because they would not know how to allow a website to use JavaScript
1079
+    (or that enabling JavaScript might make a website work).
1080
+    </p>
1081
+
1082
+    <p>
1083
+    There's a tradeoff here. On the one hand, we should leave JavaScript
1084
+    enabled by default so websites work the way users expect. On the other hand,
1085
+    we should disable JavaScript by default to better protect against browser
1086
+    vulnerabilities (
1087
+    <a href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/tor-security-advisory-old-tor-browser-bundles-vulnerable">
1088
+    not just a theoretical concern!</a>). But there's a third issue: websites
1089
+    can easily determine whether you have allowed JavaScript for them, and if
1090
+    you disable JavaScript by default but then allow a few websites to run
1091
+    scripts (the way most people use NoScript), then your choice of whitelisted
1092
+    websites acts as a sort of cookie that makes you recognizable (and
1093
+    distinguishable), thus harming your anonymity.
1094
+    </p>
1095
+
1096
+    <p>
1097
+    Ultimately, we want the default Tor bundles to use a combination of
1098
+    firewalls (like the iptables rules in
1099
+    <a href="https://tails.boum.org/">Tails</a>) and
1100
+    <a href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/7680">sandboxes</a>
1101
+    to make JavaScript not so scary. In the shorter term, TBB 3.0 will hopefully
1102
+    <a href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/9387">allow users
1103
+    to choose their JavaScript settings more easily</a> &mdash; but the
1104
+    partitioning concern will remain.
1105
+    </p>
1106
+
1107
+    <p>
1108
+    Until we get there, feel free to leave JavaScript on or off depending
1109
+    on your security, anonymity, and usability priorities.
1110
+    </p>
1111
+
1112
+    <hr>
1113
+
1114
+    <a id="TBBOtherBrowser"></a>
1115
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBOtherBrowser">I want to use
1116
+    Chrome/IE/Opera/etc with Tor.</a></h3>
1117
+
1118
+    <p>
1119
+    In short, using any browser besides Tor Browser with Tor is a really bad idea.
1120
+    </p>
1121
+
1122
+    <p>
1123
+    Our efforts to work with the Chrome team to
1124
+    <a href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/google-chrome-incognito-mode-tor-and-fingerprinting">
1125
+    add missing APIs</a> were unsuccessful, unfortunately. Currently, it is
1126
+    impossible to use other browsers and get the same level of protections as
1127
+    when using Tor Browser.
1128
+    </p>
1129
+
1130
+    <hr>
1131
+
1132
+    <a id="GoogleCAPTCHA"></a>
1133
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#GoogleCAPTCHA">Google makes me solve a CAPTCHA
1134
+    or tells me I have spyware installed.</a></h3>
1135
+
1136
+    <p>
1137
+    This is a known and intermittent problem; it does not mean that Google
1138
+    considers Tor to be spyware.
1139
+    </p>
1140
+
1141
+    <p>
1142
+    When you use Tor, you are sending queries through exit relays that are
1143
+    also shared by thousands of other users. Tor users typically see this
1144
+    message when many Tor users are querying Google in a short period of time.
1145
+    Google interprets the high volume of traffic from a single IP address
1146
+    (the exit relay you happened to pick) as somebody trying to "crawl" their
1147
+    website, so it slows down traffic from that IP address for a short time.
1148
+    </p>
1149
+
1150
+    <p>
1151
+    An alternate explanation is that Google tries to detect certain kinds of
1152
+    spyware or viruses that send distinctive queries to Google Search. It notes
1153
+    the IP addresses from which those queries are received (not realizing that
1154
+    they are Tor exit relays), and tries to warn any connections coming from
1155
+    those IP addresses that recent queries indicate an infection.
1156
+    </p>
1157
+
1158
+    <p>
1159
+    To our knowledge, Google is not doing anything intentionally specifically
1160
+    to deter or block Tor use. The error message about an infected machine
1161
+    should clear up again after a short time.
1162
+    </p>
1163
+
1164
+    <hr />
1165
+
1166
+    <a id="ForeignLanguages"></a>
1167
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#ForeignLanguages">
1168
+    Why does Google show up in foreign languages?</a></h3>
1169
+
1170
+    <p>
1171
+    Google uses "geolocation" to determine where in the world you are, so it
1172
+    can give you a personalized experience. This includes using the language
1173
+    it thinks you prefer, and it also includes giving you different results
1174
+    on your queries.
1175
+    </p>
1176
+
1177
+    <p>
1178
+    If you really want to see Google in English you can click the link that
1179
+    provides that. But we consider this a feature with Tor, not a bug --- the
1180
+    Internet is not flat, and it in fact does look different depending on
1181
+    where you are. This feature reminds people of this fact.
1182
+    </p>
1183
+
1184
+    <p>
1185
+    Note that Google search URLs take name/value pairs as arguments and one
1186
+    of those names is "hl". If you set "hl" to "en" then Google will return
1187
+    search results in English regardless of what Google server you have been
1188
+    sent to. On a query this looks like:
1189
+    </p>
1190
+
1191
+    <pre>https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=online%20anonymity&hl=en</pre>
1192
+
1193
+    <p>
1194
+    Another method is to simply use your country code for accessing Google.
1195
+    This can be google.be, google.de, google.us and so on.
1196
+    </p>
1197
+
1198
+    <hr />
1199
+
1200
+    <a id="GmailWarning"></a>
1201
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#GmailWarning">Gmail warns me that my account
1202
+    may have been compromised.</a></h3>
1203
+
1204
+    <p>
1205
+    Sometimes, after you've used Gmail over Tor, Google presents a pop-up
1206
+    notification that your account may have been compromised.
1207
+    The notification window lists a series of IP addresses and locations
1208
+    throughout the world recently used to access your account.
1209
+    </p>
1210
+
1211
+    <p>
1212
+    In general this is a false alarm: Google saw a bunch of logins from
1213
+    different places, as a result of running the service via Tor, and decided
1214
+    it was a good idea to confirm the account was being accessed by it's
1215
+    rightful owner.
1216
+    </p>
1217
+
1218
+    <p>
1219
+    Even though this may be a biproduct of using the service via tor, that
1220
+    doesn't mean you can entirely ignore the warning. It is <i>probably</i> a
1221
+    false positive, but it might not be since it is possible for someone to
1222
+    hijack your Google cookie.
1223
+    </p>
1224
+
1225
+    <p>
1226
+    Cookie hijacking is possible by either physical access to your computer or
1227
+    by watching your network traffic.  In theory only physical access should
1228
+    compromise your system because Gmail and similar services should only send
1229
+    the cookie over an SSL link. In practice, alas, it's
1230
+    <a href="http://fscked.org/blog/fully-automated-active-https-cookie-hijacking">
1231
+    way more complex than that</a>.
1232
+    </p>
1233
+
1234
+    <p>
1235
+    And if somebody <i>did</i> steal your google cookie, they might end up
1236
+    logging in from unusual places (though of course they also might not). So
1237
+    the summary is that since you're using Tor, this security measure that
1238
+    Google uses isn't so useful for you, because it's full of false positives.
1239
+    You'll have to use other approaches, like seeing if anything looks weird on
1240
+    the account, or looking at the timestamps for recent logins and wondering
1241
+    if you actually logged in at those times.
1242
+    </p>
1243
+
1244
+    <hr>
1245
+
1246
+    <a id="NeedToUseAProxy"></a>
1247
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#NeedToUseAProxy">My internet connection
1248
+    requires an HTTP or SOCKS Proxy</a></h3>
1249
+
1250
+    <p>
1251
+    You can set Proxy IP address, port, and authentication information in
1252
+    Tor Browser's Network Settings. If you're using Tor another way, check out
1253
+    the HTTPProxy and HTTPSProxy config options in the
1254
+    <a href="<page docs/tor-manual>">man page</a>, and modify your torrc file
1255
+    accordingly. You will need an HTTP proxy for doing GET requests to fetch
1256
+    the Tor directory, and you will need an HTTPS proxy for doing CONNECT
1257
+    requests to get to Tor relays. (It's fine if they're the same proxy.)
1258
+    Tor also recognizes the torrc options Socks4Proxy and Socks5Proxy.
1259
+    </p>
1260
+
1261
+    <p>
1262
+    Also read up on the HTTPProxyAuthenticator and HTTPSProxyAuthenticator
1263
+    options if your proxy requires auth. We only support basic auth currently,
1264
+    but if you need NTLM authentication, you may find
1265
+    <a href="http://archives.seul.org/or/talk/Jun-2005/msg00223.html">this post
1266
+    in the archives</a> useful.
1267
+    </p>
1268
+
1269
+    <p>
1270
+    If your proxies only allow you to connect to certain ports, look at the
1271
+    entry on <a href="#FirewallPorts">Firewalled clients</a> for how
1272
+    to restrict what ports your Tor will try to access.
1273
+    </p>
1274
+
1275
+    <hr>
1276
+
1277
+    <a id="TBBSocksPort"></a>
1278
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBSocksPort">I want to run another
1279
+    application through Tor.</a></h3>
1280
+
1281
+    <p>
1282
+    If you are trying to use some external application with Tor, step zero
1283
+    should be to <a href="<page download/download>#warning">reread the set
1284
+    of warnings</a> for ways you can screw up. Step one should be to try
1285
+    to use a SOCKS proxy rather than an HTTP proxy.
1286
+    Typically Tor listens for SOCKS connections on port 9050. Tor Browser
1287
+    listens on port 9150.
1288
+    </p>
1289
+
1290
+    <p>
1291
+    If your application doesn't support SOCKS proxies, feel free to install
1292
+    <a href="http://www.privoxy.org/">privoxy</a>.
1293
+    However, please realize that this approach is not recommended for novice
1294
+    users. Privoxy has an
1295
+    <a href="http://www.privoxy.org/faq/misc.html#TOR">
1296
+    example configuration</a> of Tor and Privoxy.
1297
+    </p>
1298
+
1299
+    <p>
1300
+    If you're unable to use the application's native proxy settings, all hope is
1301
+    not lost. See <a href="#CantSetProxy">below</a>.
1302
+    </p>
1303
+
1304
+    <hr>
1305
+
1306
+    <a id="CantSetProxy"></a>
1307
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#CantSetProxy">What should I do if I can't
1308
+    set a proxy with my application?</a></h3>
1309
+
1310
+    <p>
1311
+    On Unix, we recommend you give
1312
+    <a href="https://github.com/dgoulet/torsocks/">torsocks</a> a try.
1313
+    Alternative proxifying tools like
1314
+    <a href="http://www.dest-unreach.org/socat/">socat</a> and
1315
+    <a href="http://proxychains.sourceforge.net/">proxychains</a> are also
1316
+    available.</p>
1317
+
1318
+    <p>
1319
+    The Windows way to force applications through Tor is less clear.
1320
+    <a href="http://freecap.ru/eng/">Some</a>
1321
+    <a href="http://www.freehaven.net/~aphex/torcap/">tools</a> have been
1322
+    <a href="http://www.crowdstrike.com/community-tools/index.html#tool-79">
1323
+    proposed</a>, but we'd also like to see further testing done here.
1324
+    </p>
1325
+
1326
+    <hr>
1327
+
1328
+    <a id="TBB3.x"></a>
1329
+    <h2><a class="anchor" href="#TBB3.x">Tor Browser (3.x and later):</a></h2>
1386 1330
     <a id="WhereDidVidaliaGo"></a>
1387 1331
     <h3><a class="anchor" href="#WhereDidVidaliaGo">Where did the world map
1388 1332
     (Vidalia) go?</a></h3>
... ...
@@ -1445,34 +1389,36 @@ href="http://www.crowdstrike.com/community-tools/index.html#tool-79">proposed
1445 1389
 
1446 1390
     <p>
1447 1391
     We're working on ways to make the behavior less surprising, e.g. a popup
1448
-    warning or auto restoring tabs. See ticket <a
1449
-    href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/9906">#9906</a> and
1450
-    ticket <a
1451
-    href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/10400">#10400</a>
1392
+    warning or auto restoring tabs. See ticket
1393
+    <a href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/9906">#9906</a>
1394
+    and ticket
1395
+    <a href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/10400">#10400</a>
1452 1396
     to follow progress there.
1453 1397
     </p>
1454 1398
 
1455 1399
     <hr>
1456 1400
 
1457 1401
     <a id="ConfigureRelayOrBridge"></a>
1458
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#ConfigureRelayOrBridge">How do I configure Tor as a relay or bridge?</a></h3>
1402
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#ConfigureRelayOrBridge">How do I configure Tor
1403
+    as a relay or bridge?</a></h3>
1459 1404
 
1460 1405
     <p>
1461 1406
     You've got three options.
1462 1407
     </p>
1463 1408
 
1464 1409
     <p>
1465
-    First (best option), if you're on Linux, you can install the system
1466
-    Tor package (e.g. apt-get install tor) and then set it up to be a relay
1410
+    First (best option), if you're on Linux, you can install the
1411
+    <a href="<page download/download-unix>">system Tor package</a>
1412
+    (e.g. apt-get install tor) and then set it up to be a relay
1467 1413
     (<a href="https://www.torproject.org/docs/tor-relay-debian">instructions</a>).
1468 1414
     You can then use TBB independent of that.
1469 1415
     </p>
1470 1416
 
1471
-
1472 1417
     <p>
1473
-    Second (complex option), you can edit your torrc file (in Data/Tor/torrc)
1418
+    Second (complex option), you can edit your <a href="#torrc">torrc file</a>
1474 1419
     directly to add the following lines:
1475 1420
     </p>
1421
+
1476 1422
     <pre>
1477 1423
     ORPort 443
1478 1424
     Exitpolicy reject *:*
... ...
@@ -1486,12 +1432,12 @@ href="http://www.crowdstrike.com/community-tools/index.html#tool-79">proposed
1486 1432
     from 2000?</a></h3>
1487 1433
 
1488 1434
     <p>One of the huge new features in TBB 3.x is the "deterministic build"
1489
-    process, which allows many people to build Tor Browser and
1490
-    verify that they all make exactly the same package. See Mike's <a
1491
-    href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/deterministic-builds-part-one-cyberwar-and-global-compromise">first
1492
-    blog</a> post for the motivation, and his <a
1493
-    href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/deterministic-builds-part-two-technical-details">second
1494
-    blog post</a> for the technical details of how we do it.
1435
+    process, which allows many people to build Tor Browser and verify that they
1436
+    all make exactly the same package. See Mike's
1437
+    <a href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/deterministic-builds-part-one-cyberwar-and-global-compromise">
1438
+    first blog</a> post for the motivation, and his
1439
+    <a href="https://blog.torproject.org/blog/deterministic-builds-part-two-technical-details">
1440
+    second blog post</a> for the technical details of how we do it.
1495 1441
     </p>
1496 1442
 
1497 1443
     <p>Part of creating identical builds is having everybody use the same
... ...
@@ -1500,292 +1446,329 @@ href="http://www.crowdstrike.com/community-tools/index.html#tool-79">proposed
1500 1446
 
1501 1447
     <hr>
1502 1448
 
1503
-    <a id="TBBSourceCode"></a>
1504
-    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBSourceCode">Where is the source code for
1505
-    Tor Browser? How do I verify a build?</a></h3>
1449
+    <a id="TBBSourceCode"></a>
1450
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#TBBSourceCode">Where is the source code for
1451
+    Tor Browser? How do I verify a build?</a></h3>
1452
+
1453
+    <p>
1454
+    Tor Browser is built from the
1455
+    <a href="https://gitweb.torproject.org/builders/tor-browser-build.git/">
1456
+    tor-browser-build.git git repository</a>. You can have a look at the
1457
+    <a href="https://gitweb.torproject.org/builders/tor-browser-build.git/tree/README">
1458
+    README file</a> for the build instructions.
1459
+    There is also some informations in the
1460
+    <a href="https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/wiki/doc/TorBrowser/Hacking">
1461
+    Tor Browser Hacking Guide</a>. Also see our
1462
+    <a href="<page docs/verifying-signatures>">fingerprint verification guide</a>.
1463
+    </p>
1464
+
1465
+    <hr>
1466
+
1467
+    <a id="AdvancedTorUsage"></a>
1468
+    <h2><a class="anchor" href="#AdvancedTorUsage">Advanced Tor usage:</a></h2>
1469
+
1470
+    <a id="torrc"></a><a id="datadir"></a>
1471
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#torrc">I'm supposed to "edit my torrc".
1472
+    What does that mean? Where's tor's data directory?</a></h3>
1473
+
1474
+    <p>
1475
+    Tor uses a text file called torrc that contains configuration
1476
+    instructions for how your Tor program should behave. The default
1477
+    configuration should work fine for most Tor users.
1478
+    </p>
1479
+
1480
+    <p>
1481
+    If you installed Tor Browser on Windows or Linux, torrc is in the data
1482
+    directory, which is <code>Browser/TorBrowser/Data/Tor</code> inside your
1483
+    Tor Browser directory. For the tor service on Windows see
1484
+    <a href="#NTService">Windows NT</a>.
1485
+    </p>
1486
+
1487
+    <p>
1488
+    If you're on macOS, the torrc is in the data directory at
1489
+    <code>~/Library/Application Support/TorBrowser-Data/Tor</code>.
1490
+    To get to it, press cmd-shift-g while in Finder and copy/paste that
1491
+    directory into the box that appears.
1492
+    </p>
1493
+
1494
+    <p>
1495
+    Otherwise, if you are using Tor without Tor Browser, it looks for torrc at
1496
+    differentt possible locations:
1497
+    </p>
1498
+    <ul>
1499
+    <li>
1500
+    <code>/usr/local/etc/tor/torrc</code> if you compiled tor from source
1501
+    </li>
1502
+    <li>
1503
+    <code>/etc/tor/torrc</code> or <code>/etc/torrc</code> if you installed a
1504
+    pre-built package. The data directory usually is
1505
+    <code>/var/lib/tor/</code>, if not defined otherwise with
1506
+    <code>DataDirectory</code> in torrc.
1507
+    </li>
1508
+    <li><code>$HOME/.torrc</code>: fallback location if above file is not found.
1509
+    </li>
1510
+    <li>
1511
+    You can define a different location for torrc with <code>-f FILE</code> and
1512
+    set another data directory with <code>--DataDirectory DIR</code> as options
1513
+    to tor.
1514
+    </li>
1515
+    </ul>
1516
+
1517
+    <p>
1518
+    Once you've created or changed your torrc file, you will need to restart or
1519
+    reload tor for the changes to take effect. On Debian use
1520
+    <code>system tor reload</code>. (For advanced users, note that you
1521
+    actually only need to send Tor a HUP signal, not actually restart it.)
1522
+    </p>
1523
+
1524
+    <p>
1525
+    For other configuration options you can use, see the
1526
+    <a href="<page docs/tor-manual>">Tor manual page</a>. Have a look at
1527
+    <a href="https://gitweb.torproject.org/tor.git/tree/src/config/torrc.sample.in">
1528
+    the sample torrc file</a> for hints on common configurations. Remember, all
1529
+    lines beginning with # in torrc are treated as comments and have no effect
1530
+    on Tor's configuration.
1531
+    </p>
1532
+
1533
+    <hr>
1534
+
1535
+    <a id="Logs"></a>
1536
+    <h3><a class="anchor" href="#Logs">How do I set up logging, or see Tor's
1537
+    logs?</a></h3>
1538
+
1539
+    <p>
1540
+    You'll have to go find the log files by
1541
+    hand. Here are some likely places for your logs to be:
1542
+    </p>
1543
+
1544
+    <ul>
1545
+      <li>On OS X, Debian, Red Hat, etc, the logs are in /var/log/tor/
1546
+      </li>
1547
+      <li>On Windows, there are no default log files currently. If you enable
1548
+      logs in your <a href="#torrc">torrc</a> file, they default to <code>\username\Application
1549
+      Data\tor\log\</code> or <code>\Application Data\tor\log\</code>
1550
+      </li>
1551
+      <li>If you compiled Tor from source, by default your Tor logs to
1552
+      <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_streams">"stdout"</a>
1553
+      at log-level notice. If you enable logs in your torrc file, they
1554
+      default to <code>/usr/local/var/log/tor/</code>.
1555
+      </li>
1556
+    </ul>
1557
+
1558
+    <p>
1559
+    To change your logging setup by hand, <a href="#torrc">edit your
1560
+    torrc</a>
1561
+    and find the section (near the top of the file) which contains the
1562
+    following line:
1563
+    </p>
1564
+
1565
+    <pre>
1566
+    \## Logs go to stdout at lev